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Florida Geologic Formations

Florida has unique origins. What would become the basement rocks of Florida were once part of other continents. Most of Florida's geological history occurred under the ocean, which explains why our entire state has hundreds to thousands of feet of limestone beneath it! The sands and clays at land surface were transported to Florida, via rivers and marine currents, from the Appalachian Mountain belt as it eroded over millions of years.    

Florida geologic strata are divided into formations.  Formations are the basic rock units used in stratigraphy, the branch of geology that deals with the layers of sedimentary rock that have accumulated over geologic time.   The following are select formations that can be found in the state. Visit our page about Florida's Rocks and Minerals for more information about individual components, or take a visual tour of Florida’s tectonic and depositional history through geologic time long before the Atlantic Ocean existed with our ESRI Story Map of Florida's Geologic History.

Formations of Florida

Formation Photo Composition Extent
Alum Bluff Group View More Clays, sands, and shell beds; characterized by molluscan fauna Panhandle
Anastasia Formation

View More
Coquinoid limestone (coquina) and unconsolidated shelly sand Eastern Florida Coast
Arcadia Formation (Hawthorn Group) View More Dolomite, limestone, and quartz sands; characterized by high percentage of phosphate Central Peninsular Florida
Avon Park Formation View More Limestone and dolostone with gypsum infill Peninsular Florida
Caloosahatchee formation View More Quartz sand and shelly limestone South Florida
Cedar Keys Formation Recrystalized limestone and dolostone with gypsum, quartz and chert infill Peninsular Florida
Chattahoochee Formation View More Silty, sandy dolostone Panhandle
Chipola formation (Alum Bluff Group) Clayey, sandy fossiliferous carbonates and shelly sand Panhandle
Citronelle Formation View More Quartz sand, gravel and clay Panhandle
Cypresshead Formation View More Quartz sands Northeast Florida
Hawthorn Group View More Limestone and siliciclastics; characterized by presence of phosphates Peninsular Florida
Jackson Bluff Formation
(Alum Bluff Group)
View More Fossiliferous clayey sands and sandy clays; molluscan fauna Panhandle
Key Largo Limestone Coralline limestone South Florida
Marianna Limestone View More Fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone Panhandle
Miami Limestone View More Oolitic and brozoan limestone South Florida
Miccosukee Formation View More Interbedded and cross-bedded siliciclastics with a high clay content Panhandle
Ocala Limestone View More Highly permeable fossiliferous limestone Peninsular Florida & Eastern Panhandle
Oldsmar Formation Recrystalized limestone and dolostone with gypsum infill Peninsular Florida
St. Marks Formation View More Fossiliferous limestone Panhandle
Suwannee Limestone View More Micro-fossiliferous and crystalline limestone North and Central Peninsular Florida
Tamiami Formation View More Slightly phosphatic sandy limestone South Florida
Torreya Formation (Hawthorn Group) View More Quartz sands and fine-grained limestone with phosphate


Last Modified:
January 13, 2020 - 3:07pm

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