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Florida Geologic Formations

Florida has unique origins. What would become the basement rocks of Florida were once part of other continents. Most of Florida's geological history occurred under the ocean, which explains why our entire state has hundreds of feet of limestone beneath it! The sands and clays at land surface were deposited as the Appalachian Mountain belt eroded over millions of years.    

Florida has over 100 unique formations. The following are select formations that can be found in the state. Visit our page about Florida's Rocks and Minerals for more information about individual components, or take a visual tour of Florida’s tectonic and depositional history through geologic time long before the Atlantic Ocean existed with our ESRI Story Map of Florida's Geologic History.

Formations of Florida

Formation Photo Composition Extent
Alum Bluff Group Clays, sands, and shell beds; characterized by molluscan fauna Panhandle
Anastasia Formation

Coquinoid limestone (coquina) and unconsolidated shelly sand Eastern Florida Coast
Arcadia Formation (Hawthorn Group) Dolomite, limestone, and quartz sands; characterized by high percentage of phosphate Central Peninsular Florida
Avon Park Formation Limestone and dolostone with gypsum infill Peninsular Florida
Caloosahatchee Formation Quartz sand and shelly limestone South Florida
Cedar Keys Formation Recrystalized limestone and dolostone with gypsum, quartz and chert infill Peninsular Florida
Chattahoochee Formation Silty, sandy dolostone Panhandle
Chipola Formation (Alum Bluff Group) Clayey, sandy fossiliferous carbonates and shelly sand Panhandle
Citronelle Formation Quartz sand, gravel and clay Panhandle
Cypresshead Formation Quartz sands Northeast Florida
Hawthorn Group Limestone and siliciclastics; characterized by presence of phosphates Peninsular Florida
Jackson Bluff Formation
(Alum Bluff Group)
Fossiliferous clayey sands and sandy clays; molluscan fauna Panhandle
Key Largo Limestone Coralline limestone South Florida
Marianna Limestone Fossiliferous, argillaceous limestone Panhandle
Miami Limestone Oolitic and brozoan limestone South Florida
Miccosukee Formation Interbedded and cross-bedded siliciclastics with a high clay content Panhandle
Ocala Limestone Highly permeable fossiliferous limestone Peninsular Florida & Eastern Panhandle
Oldsmar Formation Recrystalized limestone and dolostone with gypsum infill Peninsular Florida
St. Marks Formation Fossiliferous limestone Panhandle
Suwannee Limestone Micro-fossiliferous and crystalline limestone North and Central Peninsular Florida
Tamiami Formation Slightly phosphatic sandy limestone South Florida
Torreya Formation (Hawthorn Group) Quartz sands and fine-grained limestone with phosphate


Last Modified:
September 13, 2019 - 4:14pm

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